Dr. Maria Montessori
The philosophy is based on three equal components:
Planes of Development
Human Development does not proceed in a linear or constant fashion. Rather, it occurs in periods or cycles. Dr. Montessori referred to these cycles as “planes of development” and divides child development into four planes. Each plane is further divided into phases of attainment and refinement.
The child from birth to six is developing physical independence and language. During these early years, the child is absorbing everything in the environment and working to refine and perfect new skills and knowledge. Independence, coordination, concentration, and a sense of order are the forces driving growth and development.
The Elementary child, 6-12 years, wants to move and act for himself or herself. Elementary children are seeking the knowledge of the universe. They ask deep philosophical questions and are on a search for meaning. Imagination, socialization, and moral judgment guide their development.
From 12-18 years, the Adolescent explores how to fit into society and become a part of the larger world. Trust, self-expression, analytical thought, commitment, and responsibility are paramount.
The Young Adult integrates all of the aspects of the earlier three stages and is prepared to go out into the world and become a contributing member of their society.